Some students struggle with writing essays while others consider it relatively easy. Formatting essays appropriately, though, is a difficulty for everyone because every citation style has its own rules. AMA citation, provided by the American Medical Association, is a popular academic style used in medical and social sciences fields. AMA citation generator is of great help to those who are wary of citing sources themselves, but for its assistance to be 100% effective, you should learn some basic stylistic particularities yourself. Making references in text is essential because it increases the credibility of research and helps eliminate plagiarism. Proper formatting is worth about 10-20% of your grade, so learn what AMA style citation entails with this guide.
AMA In text Citations: All Kinds
AMA 10th edition citation style is based on superscript and Arabic numerals (1,2,3, etc.). It means that your in-text citations and references list are closely connected because whatever source you mention in text first is going to be the first in a final list as well. Place numbers right after the fact or quote you mention. When referencing and AMA formatting one source more than once, keep repeating the numeral you’ve used for it for the first time.
AMA style reference doesn’t require page numbers for any sources, even for using direct quotations, but many professors still ask their students to include them. If so, mention page number in parenthesis after the numeral of your reference.
It should look like this:It is known that 35% of studies “fail because of inadequate testing.”1(p92)
If quote or fact stretches for longer than one page, include “pp” instead of one single “p”.
AMA citation generator can help in many cases, but unless you’re aware of what numerals mean, you’ll find it hard to apply even readily available references. When you need to cite one author, you can do it in two ways. Introduce this author in the text by the last name and add numeral right after that, like in the example below.Volterson1 believes that nothing can be done in such cases.
Another option involves using only numerals with no mentions of name, putting them after facts or statistics.Nothing can be done in such cases1.
Don’t forget that if you’re planning to refer to this work again, repeat numeral — based on example, it’ll be numeral 1.
For two authors mentioned in text, AMA referencing style requires listing both last names and putting numeral after the second one.Dolins and Small4 helped realize advanced medical benefits.
Three and More Authors
For three and more authors, AMA format creator suggests mentioning only one of them. Then add ‘et al’, which will indicate that there are more contributors who weren’t listed. Note that unlike in other styles, AMA citation builder doesn’t presuppose placing a period after ‘et al’.Kevons et al5 created another insightful report.
Organization as an Author
If some useful source was created by organization, with no specific authors mentioned, simply put appropriate numeral after cited fact or name organization and put numeral after it.WHO7 presented two reports on targeted population.
In case no author is present, use either numeral like in other cases or the title of your source. For example, you want to cite an article with the unknown author as well as introduce it directly in the text? Use its title. Follow AMA referencing style to format it properly, though: neither italics nor quotation marks are needed for titles of short works.It is largely discussed in Who Made You Boss2 article.
Authors with the Same Last Name
AMA citation generator will unlikely be helpful if you’re planning to reference two authors who share one name. Solution is simple, just add different numerals for them, depending on who you’ve cited first. If it’s also important to introduce them in text, give their names’ initials like this:L. Orwel4 and D. Orwel5.
Several Works by One Author Published in the Same Year
AMA citation machine is very convenient, which makes students’ academic life much easier. Numerals are the most important aspect of this style, meaning that it doesn’t matter how many works of one author you keep using in an essay. Create a separate numeral for each — it’ll be enough.
Multiple Sources in One Citation
There might be cases when you need to use several sources in one sentence. Give each source its numeral, then list them one by one by separating them with comma.Many scholars support this notion2,4,7,9.
It’s also possible to put hyphen between numerals of a range of sources that go in sequence. Instead of mentioning 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., follow this example.It is proved by many medical representatives1-4.
Electronic Sources citation
In-text citations in AMA referencing style don’t differ for published and electronic sources. Add numerals or titles like you would in other instances.
Story/Article From Anthology citation
If only one story from anthology is cited, mention its author’s name/fact/quote and include numeral after it.
Reference List Formatting Rules
AMA citation generator can help in references list formatting a lot, but still, knowing how to do that manually will be extremely useful. The first thing to remember is that you need to situate all sources based on numerals you’ve placed in the text. So, a source with numeral 1 will come first in the AMA references list. A source with numeral 2 will come second, and so on.
The word ‘References’ shouldn’t be in bold. Hanging indents are not generally needed, but check what professionals at your uni say; ask your professor for this manual. If nothing is provided, use this guide in the following way. Mention the author’s last name, then his/her first as well as middle names’ initials. Don’t use punctuation there, though commas are needed for separating different authors.
Books with One Author
AMA citation format for books requires numbers, names of authors, title, edition number (if it’s something other than the first), city/state of publication, publishing company’s name, as well as year.1) Madjers LK. Brain’s Capabilities. 3rd ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage; 2003.
Books with Up to Six Authors
If there are between two and six authors, list them all after comma.4) Jankins KS, Morgan SL, Sallivan BU, Davidson LO. Losing Control. Needham, MA: Allyn and Bacon; 2014.
Books with More Than Six Authors
In AMA format citation, don’t list authors’ full names if their number exceeds 6. Use “et al” instead.2) Kroll MG, et al. Leaving It All Behind. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2019.
Articles both from academic journals and popular magazines are used most frequently. AMA citation isn’t difficult here as all that’s required is author’s name, article’s title, journal name (abbreviated if possible), year of publication, volume, issue, and page range. Still, like in examples before, punctuation is very particular.8) Davidson FL, Morgan SK. Psychological impact of CSA trauma on survivors. J Inter Studies. 2018;13(5):302-321.
AMA citation maker is convenient when it comes to electronic sources. Cite all available info in such order: author (or organization), title, website, link, publication date, as well as the date of access. It should look like this.2) Love YF. Finding the strength to wait. OTW News. https://www.1111.html. Published April 9, 2018. Accessed March 17, 2019.
Story/Article From Anthology citation
In case you’re using only one story from a book, or maybe a specific chapter for American Medical Association citation, this is how you should format it: story/chapter’s author’s name, the title of short work, editor of the entire collection, this collection’s title, edition, city/state, publishing house, date, pages.3) Bergon M. Parental influence on mentally unstable children. In: Crowley MK, ed. Relationships between Children and Parents from Medical Point of View. 4th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2006:101-110.
YouTube Video Citation
For YouTube videos, either mention a person who created this video or use ‘no author’ format. Remember that if someone just uploaded the video without creating it, they cannot be regarded as its author. Follow example below.1) LynxE_38. Summer faculty promotion [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/11111. Published May 23, 2012. Accessed March 17, 2019.
Movies are rarely cited for this style, which is why finding an option to format them through AMA citation generator is possible. So, see an example of how it should be done.Derikson SM. She Was a Killer Once [DVD]. Philadelphia, PA: Stiles Pictures; 2019.
Key AMA 10th Edition Rules With Examples
There are many technical aspects that should be taken into consideration for AMA citation. Let’s regard five of such rules.
AMA format must have four central elements, such as title page, abstract (unless professor asks not to include it), text itself, and references list.
Paper text formatted as per AMA citation comprises four parts: introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections.
Keywords are needed at the end of abstract, comprising between 3-10 elements.
Abstracts in AMA can be structured and unstructured. Structured one should be up to 250 words unless specified otherwise and it’s used in original data reports, clinical as well as systemic reviews. Unstructured abstracts help with other types of papers and they should be shorter, up to 150 words. Both kinds require summarizing what research is about.
For example:“This report covers analyses presented in six different studies on schizophrenia. The objective of the report was… According to the results… Thus, based on research conducted, it is clear that…”
Titles of books, journals, and movies are always in italics. In addition, first letters of important words should be capitalized.
See this example:Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (both book and movie). Also, the American Journal of Psychology. Titles of shorter works like articles should be in plain text, with no quotation marks and not necessarily capitalized. For example: Discrimination rates have grown by 10% (article’s title).